Playable cities: sources

The model and the chapters for 'Playable cities' are based on an extensive desk research of international literature and websites about public spaces (for kids). Using the work of for example, Mikael Colville-Andersen, Jan Gehl (Making Cities for People; Gehl Institute), Tim Gill, Jane Jacobs, Kaboom!, Kevin Lynch, Project for Public Spaces (PPS), The Bernard van Leer Foundation (Urban95), The City at Eyelevel, and William H. Whyte. But also using the results from scientific research published in international academic journals such as 'Childeren's Geography' and policy documents from cities. The desk research has been conducted between October 2017 and July 2018, but my interest for the subject was started in the 1990s when I studied Urban Geography. Manifesting itself in a full bookcase and continuously observing and making pictures of the way people use the built environment. The attention for the subject got a boost six years ago when my daughter was born. The chapters are continuously updated.

Summary | WHY? | HOW? | WHAT? | Sources


Consulted sources and reading tips

8 80 cities (2017) Building Better Cities with Young Children and Families. How to engage our youngest citizens and families in city building: a global scan of best practices. Toronto.

Lesley Abbott (2003) Birth to three matters: an introduction to the framework. Sure Start.

Active Living Research (2010) Parks, Playgrounds and Active Living. Research synthesis.

Active Living Research (2011a) The Potential of Safe, Secure and Accessible Playgrounds to Increase Children’s Physical Activity. Research brief.

Active Living Research (2011b) The Power of Trails for Promoting Physical Activity in Communities. Research brief.

Eva Änggård (2016) How matter comes to matter in children's nature play: posthumanist approaches and children's geographies. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 14, Number 1, pp. 77-90.

ARUP (2017) Cities Alive: designing for urban childhoods. London: ARUP.

Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council (2017) Website Creating Places for People.

Bernard van Leer Foundation (2018) Website Urban95.

Jason Beske en David Dixon (2018) Suburban Remix: creating the next generation of urban places. Washington: Island Press.

Ad de Bont (2017) The Active City. Urhahn.

Julie K. Bower, Derek P. Hales, Deborah F. Tate, Daniela A. Rubin, Sara E. Benjamin, Dianne S. Ward (2008) The Childcare Environment and Children’s Physical Activity. In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 34, Number 1, pp. 23-29.

Libby Brooks (2016) Kids and the city: how do you build the perfect space for children? The Guardian, 20 December 2016.

Mariana Brussoni (2015) Risky outdoor play positively impacts children’s health. The University of British Colombia. 

Hillary L. Burdette, Robert C. Whitaker & Stephen R. Daniels (2004) Parental Report of Outdoor Playtime as a Measure of Physical Activity in Preschool-aged Children. In: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Volume 158, Number 4, pp. 353-357.

Jack Burgers, Linda Zuijderwijk, Saskia Binken & Döske van der Wilk (2012) Levendige en veilige openbare ruimte. De visie van professionals en ervaringen van gebruikers. Den Haag: NICIS/Platform 31.

Charlotte Cammelbeeck, Luuk Engbers, Maartje Kunen & Dayenne L’abée (2014) Ontwerpprincipes voor een beweegvriendelijke omgeving. Nederlands Instituut voor Sport en Bewegen.

Sofia Cele & Danielle van der Burgt (2015) Participation, consultation, confusion: professionals' understandings of children's participation in physical planning. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 13, Number 1, pp. 14-29.

Changelab Solutions (2017) Creating Active, Accessible Communities. Website.

Child in the City Foundation (2018) Website Child in the City

Arza Churchman (2003) Is There a Place for Children in the City? In: Journal of Urban Design, Volume 8, Number 2, pp. 99-111.

City of New York (2010) Active Design Guidelines: promoting physical activity and health in design. New York.

Mikael Colville-Andersen (2018) Copenhagenize; The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism. Island Press.

Mikael Colville-Andersen (2018) Copenhagenize. The blog.

Adrian Crook (2017) Very Superstitious: How Fact-Free Parenting Policies Rob Our Kids of Independence. Blog 5 Kids, 1 Condo.



Scott Doyon (2011) Popsicles and the Importance of Simplicity. Blog Place Shakers.

Janet Dyment & Timothy S. O'Connell (2013) The impact of playground design on play choices and behaviors of pre-school children. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 11, Number 3, pp. 263-280.

Reid Ewing, Otto Clemente, Susan Handy, Ross C. Brownson & Emily Winston (2005) Identifying and Measuring Urban Design Qualities Related to Walkability—Final Report. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Mireia Baylina Ferré , Anna Ortiz Guitart & Maria Prats Ferret (2006) Children and playgrounds in Mediterranean cities. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 173-183.

Ingunn Fjørtoft (2011) The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children: The Impact of Outdoor Play Activities in Pre-Primary School Children. In: Early Childhood Education Journal, Volume 29, Number 2, pp. 111-117

Helen Forman (2017) Residential Street Design and Play. A literature review of policy, guidance and research on residential street design and its influence on children’s independent outdoor activity. Playing Out.

Sanford Gaster (1991) Urban Children's Access to the Neighborhood. Changes over Three Generation. In: Environment and Behavior, Volume 23, number 1, pp. 70-85.

Jan Gehl (2010) Cities for People. Island Press.

Jan Gehl en Birgitte Svarre (2013) How to study public life. Island Press.

Gehl Institute (2016) The Public Life Diversity Toolkit

Gehl Institute & Gehl (2018) Space to grow: Ten principles that support happy, healthy families in a playful, friendly city. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation’s.

Tim Gill (2007) No Fear: growing up in a risk averse society. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.

Tim Gill (2018) Blog rethinking childhood. https://rethinkingchildhood.com

Josie Gleave & Issy Cole-Hamilton (2012) A world without play: A literature review on the effects of a lack of play on children’s lives. Play England.

Jillian Glover (2017) Making the Case for Children’s Independence in Cities. Blog This City Life.

Jillian Glover (2018) Blog This City Life.

Helene M. Grow, Brian E. Saelens, Jacqueline Kerr, Nefertiti H. Durant, Gregory J. Norman & James F. Sallis (2008) Where Are Youth Active? Roles of Proximity, Active Transport, and Built Environment. In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 40, Number 12, pp. 2071–2079.

Maarten Hajer & Arnold Reijndorp (2001) In search of new public domain: analysis and strategies. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.

Roger Hancock & Julia Gillen (2007) Safe places in domestic spaces: two-year-olds at play in their homes. In: Children’s Geographies, Volume 5, Number 4, pp. 337-351.

Jos Haug & Frans Schuurman (2017) Voetpaden voor iedereen. Utrecht/Zwolle: Bouw Advies Toegankelijkheid.

Gerben Helleman (2013) Making Vital Public Spaces: the power of observation, community wishes and activities. Blog Urban Springtime.

Gerben Helleman (2017a) How to make inviting and attractive public spaces? A top 10. Blog Urban Springtime.

Gerben Helleman (2017b) Playable cities. Blog Urban Springtime.

Gerben Helleman (2017c) Speelbare steden: een persoonlijk verhaal. Blog Stadslente. 

Nicholas L. Holt, Homan Lee, Carolyn A. Millar & John C. Spence (2015) ‘Eyes on where children play’: a retrospective study of active free play. In: Children’s Geographies, Volume 13, Number 1, pp. 73-88.

Jane Jacobs (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House Usa Inc.

KaBOOM! (2018) Play Everywhere Gallery. Website KaBOOM!

KaBOOM! (2016) Play everywhere playbook. Washington.

Andrew T. Kaczynski, Luke R. Potwarka & Brian E. Saelens (2008) Association of Park Size, Distance, and Features With Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks. In: American Journal of Public Health, Volume 98, Number 8, pp. 1451–1456.

Hans Karssenberg, Jeroen Laven, Meredith Glaser & Matthijs van 't Hoff (2016) The city at eyelevel. Delft: Eburon.

Lia Karsten (2005) It all used to be better? Different generations on continuity and change in urban children's daily use of space. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 275-290.

Lia Karsten & Naomi Felder (2016) De nieuwe generatie stadskinderen: ruimte maken voor opgroeien [The new generation city children: making space for growing up]. Rotterdam: nai010 uitgevers.

Kennis- en expertisecentrum Kind & Samenleving vzw (2018) Website kind & samenleving.

Elif Kutay Karaçor (2016) Public vs. Private: The Evaluation of Different Space Types in Terms of Publicness Dimension. In: European Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 5, Number 3, pp. 51-58.

Laura Laker (2018) What would the ultimate child-friendly city look like? In: The Guardian, 28 February 2018.

Anna van Lingen & Denisa Kollarova (2016) Aldo van Eyck: seventeen playgrounds. Lecturis BV. 

Todd Litman (2009) Sidewalk Design Vehicle. Blog Planetizen.

B.P.Y. Loo & W.W.Y. Lam (2015) Does neighbourhood count in affecting children's journeys to schools? In: Children's Geographies, Volume 13, Number 1, pp. 89-113.

Anastasia Loukaitou-sideris (2003) Children's Common Grounds: A Study of Intergroup Relations Among Children in Public Settings. In: Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume 69, Number 2, pp. 130-143.

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Jolanda Maas, Rianne Muller & Dieuwke Hovinga (2014) Groene schoolpleinen: succes- en faalfactoren bij een duurzaam ontwerp van groene schoolpleinen. Amsterdam: VU Medisch Centrum.

Sarah E. Messiah (2017) Get your children moving —it may just improve their grades. Miami Herald, 14 november 2017.

Vikas Metha (2014) Evaluating Public Space. In: Journal of Urban Design, Volume 19, Number 1, pp. 53-88.

Charles Montgomery (2013) Happy City; transforming our lives through urban design. Penguin books.

National Association of City Transportation Officials (2013) Urban Street Design Guide. Island Press.

Nike (2013) Designed to Move: a Physical Activity Action Agenda.

Nike (2015) Designed to Move: Active Cities. A guide for city leaders.

Nike (2018) Website Designed to move.

OBB - specialists in playful spaces (2018) The Speckle. Deventer.

Johan Oost & Gerben Helleman (2018) The Speckle; a scan for studying the quality of playable open spaces. Chapter contribution 'The city at eyelevel for kids'.

Play and Playground encyclopedia (2018) Website

Project for Public Spaces (2016) The Case for Healthy Places. Improving health outcomes through placemaking. PPS.

Project for Public Spaces (2018) Website PPS.

Raad voor de leefomgeving en infrastructuur (2018) De stad als gezonde habitat. Den Haag: Rli.

Allan Richarz (2017) Bureaucrats remain fixated on protecting kids from that terrifying condition known as 'childhood'. Opinion CBS News.

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Nicola D. Ridgers, Zoe R. Knowlesb & Jo Sayers (2012) Encouraging play in the natural environment: a child-focused case study of Forest School. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 10, Number 1, pp. 49-65.

Marlies Rohmer (2007) Bouwen voor de next generation. Nai uitgevers.

Margrete Skår & Erling Krogh (2009) Changes in children's nature-based experiences near home: from spontaneous play to adult-controlled, planned and organised activities. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 7, Number 3, pp. 339-354.

Anne Steinhoff (2016) Why winning and losing is important for children. Blog Early childhood development.

Studio Ludo (2017) London study of playgrounds: the Influence of Design on Play Behavior in London vs New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles. Philadelphia.

Deborah Talbot (2013) Early parenting and the urban experience: risk, community, play and embodiment in an East London neighbourhood. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 11, Number 2, pp. 230-242.

Joanne L. Thomson & Chris Philo (2004) Playful spaces? a social geography of children's play in Livingston, Scotland. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 2, Number 1, pp. 111-130.

Towards the Human City (2018) Website.

Unicef (2018) Child Friendly Cities Initiative.

United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).

Jenny Veitch, Jo Salmon & Kylie Ball (2007) Children's Perceptions of the Use of Public Open Spaces for Active Free-play. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 5, Number 4, pp. 409-422.

Sanne de Vries (2009) Activity-friendly neighborhoods for children: measurement of physical activity and environmental correlates. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Sjerp de Vries (2013) Groene schoolpleinen, wat levert het op? Effecten van vergroening van vier schoolpleinen in een krachtwijk in Rotterdam 2010 – 2013. Wageningen: Alterra.

S. de Vries, F. Langers, J.L.M. Donders, M.T. Willeboer en A.E. van den Berg (2013) Meer groen op het schoolplein: een interventiestudie. De effecten van het groen herinrichten van schoolpleinen op de ontwikkeling, het welzijn en de natuurhouding van het kind. Wageningen: Alterra.

Mark Wagenbuur (2018) Bicycle Dutch; all about cycling in the Netherlands. Blog.

Jay Walljasper (2007) The Great Neighborhood Book. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers.

William H. Whyte (1980) The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. New York: Project for Public Spaces.

Helen E. Woolley & Elizabeth Griffin (2015) Decreasing experiences of home range, outdoor spaces, activities and companions: changes across three generations in Sheffield in north England. In: Children's Geographies, Volume 13, Number 6, pp. 677-691.

Summary | WHY? | HOW? | WHAT? | Sources

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